Water Kefir Strains


Strains of bacteria and yeast found in Kefir Grains (and kefir itself):

Water kefir is typically composed of both lactic and acetic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus and Leuconostoc are the lactic acid bacteria.  Then there's the Acetobacter, Gluconobacter and Gluconacetobater which are acetic acid bacteria. (Gluconobacter and Gluconaeceobater are much less common than Acetobacter.)

Recently Bifidobacteriaceae and Zymomonas were discovered in water kefir grains as a large percentage of the total bacteria. Streptococcus was identified in earlier research but has not been found in the newer studies.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae and hanseniaspora valbysensis seem to be the two biggest yeasts, followed by other minor yeasts.

Most Common Bacteria Species in Water Kefir

Acetobacter fabarum
Acetobacter orientalis
Bifidobacterium aquikefir (proposed name)
Bifidobacterium crudilactisand
Bifidobacterium psychraerophilum
Lactobacillus nagelii
Lactobacillus hordei
Lactobacillus hilgardii
Lactobacillus casei
Leuconostoc mesenteroides
Leuconostoc citreum
Zymomonas mobilis


Most Common Yeast Species in Water Kefir

Dekkera Anomala
Dekkera Bruxellensis
Hanseniaspora valbyensis
Lachancea Fermantati
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Zygosachharomyces s Lentus
Zygotorulaspora florentina


Complete bacteria list of possible strains or species

Acetobacter species:
cerevisiae, cibinongensis, indonesiensis, malorum, orientalis, orleanensis, tropicalis, aceti, fabarum, iovaniensis, ghanensis, syzygii, peroxydans

Gluconobacter species:
albidus, oxydans, roseus, kanchanburiensis, sphaericus, cerinus, frateuri, japonicus, thailandicus wancheriae

Gluconacetobacter species:
entanii, europaeus, hansenii, intermedius, kombuchae, nataicola, oboediens, rhaeticus, sacharivorans, sucrofermentans, swingsii, xylinus, liquefaciens, sacchari, johannae

Bifidobacterium species:
crudilactis, psychraerophilum, Bifidobacterium aquikefir

Lactobacillus species:
aquaticus, sucicola, uvarum, capillatus cacaonum, hordei, mali, ghanensis nagelii satsumensis casei, paracasei, zeae, hilgardii

Leuconostoc species:
citreum, holzapfeli, lactis, palmae, holzapfelii, mesenteroides, pseudomesenteroides, kimchi

Clostridium species:
arbusti, tyrobutyricum


1. https://academic.oup.com/femsle/article/348/1/79/563641

2. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/jam.12124

3. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168160512002036

4. https://www.microbiologyresearch.org/docserver/fulltext/ijsem/66/3/1281_ijsem000877.pdf

5. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0168160511005344

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